EBOOK (Sygdommen til Døden) ↠ Søren Kierkegaard
Casuistry and Modern Ethics: A Poetics of Practical Reasoning gKierkegaard is a strange philosopher to discuss His writing is incredibly dense in ideology while poetically preserving the aesthetic I bought this book than two years ago along with Fear and Trembling yet they have never left my bedside table One can read this book a dozen times and still find new landscapes in his ideology It was about time to revisit this book once againIt might sound ridiculous but I find this book to be thereatest self help book ever written Its important to recognize Despair as a part of the self its important to recognize Despair as the right path to actualization or in Kierkegaard s vocabulary Faith Its normal for us to rebel against our existence and defy any eternal consolation for the sake of individuality because what are we but self conscious errors who have risen up against the tyranny of their creator One of the most eye opening works of philosophy I have ever read What our age needs is education And so this is what happened God chose a man who also needed to be educated and educated him privatissime so that he might be able to teach others from his own experience From Kierkegaard s personal Journals 2013 is the bicentennial of Kierkegaard s birth He probably would have not wanted you to know that but he has plenty things to let you knowThey call him the Father of Existent In which I am again reminded of a friend s experience with a professor in a class on Kierkegaard the students spent the first five weeks trying to convince the professor that you can probably only understand a uarter of Kierkegaard unless you read him in the context of Hegel the professor rejects this and stresses instead Kierkegaard s Socraticism at the end of the fifth week ie less than halfway through the course the professor admits defeat If that doesn t sound remarkable you haven t taken many courses with philosophy professors whom you cannot convince of anything unless they already secretly believe it The moral of the story is most of Kierkegaard s writing is incomprehensible unless you ve read Hegel That doesn t mean as the cliche has it that he s writing against Hegel This book is a kind of depressing mini phenomenology of spirit in which instead of ascending towards absolute knowledge human kind simultaneously ascends towards what Kierkegaard takes to be absolute knowledge ie God and descends further into despair for any number of reasons and in any number of ways For Hegel there s always one destination you might stop on the way to the truth but your journey is always in that direction For Kierkegaard as for Marx there are two destinations the Charlestown Blues good Godcommunism and the horrific despairbarbarism which are both in the same direction For Marx science in the Hegelian sense willet you to communism while ideologycapitalism etc will Charlestown Blues: Selected Poems, a Bilingual Edition get you to barbarism For Kierkegaard science will lead you closer to God by deepening your despair but it won tet you to the Building the South Side good Kierkegaard has veryood criticisms to make of Hegel but not the way that say Russell has criticisms of him Kierkegaard like Marx remains on Hegel s side of the fence Anyway SuD is a critiue of the various idiocies human kind will perform in order to stay in despair Unlike 20th century existentialists to whom he s often compared Kierkegaard insists that the way we are both eternal and mortal does not in itself lead to despair despair is the result of an imbalance in ourselves a stressing of one or the other of these elements at the expense of the other The human condition is not intrinsically one of despair despair is something we do to ourselves SuD oes through the many different ways in which we can be unbalanced pretending we re other than we are despairing of the way we are and so on The cure is to recognize and live with our synthesis not wish to be entirely eternal a fantasy nor believe ourselves to be entirely mortal which as a kind of determinism cuts us off nor believe ourselves to be entirely mortal which as a kind of determinism cuts us off the possibilities of human existence The uasi Hegelian portraits of various people in despair still read like a rogue s allery of contemporary intellectuals Have hope in the possibility of help especially on the strength of the absurd that for God everything is possible No that he will not And ask help of any other No that for all the world he will not do if it came to that he would rather be himself with all the torments of hell than ask for help 102Here are your militant atheists scientific determinists literary existentialists and solipsistic nihilists of all stripes wallowing in self satisfaction he prefers to rage against everything and be the one whom the whole world all existence has wronged the one for whom it is especially important to ensure that he has his agony on hand so that no one will take it from him for then he would not be able to convince others and himself that he is right 103 The second part on despair as sin is a much easier read and not uite as interesting although it does include the wonderful thought that a self is what it has as its standard of measurement 147 Kierkegaard s attack on Christendom comes up here and is as right as ever but you d have to be pretty convinced of the perfection of institutional Christianity to find it all that affecting and I dear reader am not In short there s a reat lesson in here for 21st century types who like to harp on about humanity s existential loneliness and how evolution means we re destined "To Rape And Pillage "rape and pillage there s no meaning any if you think only a God can ive us meaning then leap into faith or come to the somewhat easier realization that actually we can ive ourselves meaning It s childish to think otherwise I ve always found it odd that so many people who uite rightly hold firm to empiricism take so seriously the idea of determinism a reasonable assumption for experimental science but not therefore a fact despite the absence of evidence for it Granted there can be no evidence for it despite those idiotic experiments in which people s brains decide something before the people do But determinism and God have that in common That won t change anyone s mind on God or determinism of course because as Kierkegaard puts it in a different context the despairer thinks that he himself is this evidence 105 Just read this for the second time The first time was in college for a Kierkegaard class I liked it then a lot but one of the problems with college for me was that I often felt overloaded There was so
#much to read that it was often difficult to et it all #to read that it was often difficult to et it all and so even the stuff I read was almost never at full attentionI read Fear and Trembling before college or at least my second and successful attempt at college I really loved it But on the other hand I have a difficult relationship with Christianity It s too close to me to abandon but too uncomfortable to be satisfyingProbably the most satisfying communal religious experiences I have had have been with the uakers Of course as with any denomination there are many kinds of uakers I mean the uiet ones The ones who literally meet on Sunday sometimes other times too to sit for an hour in silence Where there is no priest and anyone can speak if they feel moved by God Of course just as there are different denominations there are different congregations and let s just say some of them are uiet than othersSometimes I feel very strongly that any Christianity I could really accept would be found in Christian writers like. Influencing philosophers such as Sartre and Camus and still strikingly modern in its psychological insights Kierkegaard's The Sickness Unto Death explores the concept of 'despair' as a symptom of the human condition and describes. E been reading then it does not matter what other people think because I have iven myself my own definition It is also the case outside of this particular sphere because if you let people define who you are David I can see that you are this type of person then we open ourselves up to despair because we ive our identity to others to enchain us with their opinion How would one respond to that Me I simply ignore that person and o and find somebody else to spend time with somebody who is not Collections of Nothing going to attempt to define me but allow me to define myself Iuess that is what Kierkegaard is trying to do and I don t really think he does it well in my opinion because this book is very dense and also hard to follow his argument and that is to empower us to escape from the cycle of despair and to make us realise that in God s eyes we are actually somebody and while we may have a meaningless dead end job we can escape that by Communism giving ourselves our own identity and our own definition Another example from my own life is that in my previous role I let it define me and because I let it define me it depressed me This time I just acknowledge that I do work and I work for an insurance company but then try to move away from that to talk about other things so that my job does not define me but rather I define myself Look it isn t easy and people really don t like it when you empower yourself like that but as Nietzsche said that which doesn t kill you only makes you stronger and he was also an existentialist philosopher The Sickness unto Death is an insightful taxonomy of human self deception and a fascinating polemic supporting a Christianity of individuals rather thanroups Its two parts The Sickness unto Death is Despair and Despair is Sin reflect its dual psychological and theological significanceIt is first a precursor of modern psychoanalysis exploring the idea of despair as a lack of self understanding and self acceptance Anticipating Freud s unconscious mind Kierkegaard claims that virtually everyone is always in despair whether they know it or not Not being conscious of being in despair is itself a form of despair The physician knows that just as there can be merely imagined illness so too is there merely imagined health Much of the book consists of a eneral overview of the many different forms despair can take from the despairing ignorance of having a self and an eternal self to the demonic wanting in despair to be oneself defianceAlthough as one of Kierkegaard s algebraic ie philosophically schematic rather than literary works Sickness spends little time developing these forms of despair fleshed out examples an be found in his other works such as EitherOr The short allegories Kierkegaard does use to illustrate his ideas however are consistently clear and illuminating For exampleAs a father disinherits a son the self will not acknowledge itself after it has been so weak Despairingly it is unable to forget that weakness somehow it hates itself it will not humble itself in faith under its weakness in order to win itself back No in despair it will not as it were hear a word about itself will have nothing to do with itself As doubtless often with the father who disinherited the son the external fact only helped a little it did not rid him of the son least of all in his thoughts As so often it helps little when the lover curses the despised that is loved one but almost intricates him the so it is for the despairing self with itselfSecond and to Kierkegaard s purpose Sickness is an unorthodoxly orthodox classic of Christian theology A must read for anyone interested in the concept of sin Sickness disavows the notion that sin is simply unethical behavior no for Kierkegaard the opposite of sin is not virtue but faith Sin for Kierkegaard is before God or with the conception of God in despair not wanting to be oneself or wanting in despair to be oneself Sin is a heightened form of despair in which God judges each one of us Using this notion Kierkegaard attacks established Christendom for being complacent and confident due to its strength in numbers of its sinlessnessChristianity says to each individual Thou shalt believe Not one word there is not This can be called a Phenomenology of Despair Kierkegaard is freuently considered as anti Hegel but this book can be considered as a kind of dialectic of the self Kierkegaard looked at the self the same way as Hegel looked at the world his universal spiritHere we see his iterative definition of the self The self is a relation which relates itself to its own self or it is that in the relation that the relation relates itself to its own self the self is not the relation but that the relation relates itself to its own self It must in turn relate to the power which established the whole relation The self is a dynamic process It is simultaneously becoming and and unbecoming from what one isand the self as a synthesis A human being is a synthesis of the infinite and the finite of the temporal and the eternal of freedom and necessity in short a synthesisDespair results from lack of balance between these opposites and takes three forms Being unconscious in despair of having a self This of balance between these opposites and takes three forms Being unconscious in despair of having a self This the most common form of despair Despair of an aesthete Where someone is lost in something external that they are not aware of their eternal self or that they are in despair A spiritless existence From Kierkegaard s point of view almost everyone is in despair and most of them are not aware of it not wanting in despair to be oneself happens if one has finitude and necessity but without infinitude and possibility ie no faith For God is infinite for God everything is possible The opposite is where you have infinitude and possibility without being rounded in temporal and necessity Where one is carried away by dreams and fantasies without being Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans grounded in something temporal leading to despair and wanting in despair to be oneselfOne can contrast this with materialism where alienation and despair are caused by material circumstances and they can be rid of by changing the society Even though they never encountered each other s works Marx and Kierkegaard were contemporaries and both of their thoughtserminated in the rapidly industrialising society But for Marx a materialist this alienation ultimately took the form of a worker being alienated from "his labour and it can only be overcome by changing the society and for Kierkegaard the individual self is all that " labour and it can only be overcome by changing the society and for Kierkegaard the individual self is all that despair can only be overcome by the self through faithAmong the western thinkers existentialists have a lot in common with buddhist and hindu thinkers The similar emphasis on the self the importance of self realisation and in this book there is also some similarity in the understanding of despair Despair as a sickness of the spirit and the opposite of being in despair is to have faith Standing openly in front of GodHere we also see the Christian notion of despair as a blessing Something which we see in Dostoevsky s works as well Despair transcends banal experience and it leads to salvation So despair is also a blessing To arrive at deliverance one must pass through despairThe second part Consumed: Food for a Finite Planet got too Christian and esoteric for me It mainly deals with sin This work is rooted in christianity but still has universal applicability If you want to understand how your relation is relating itself to itself you must read this book. Ned outraged provoked and comforted They have enriched lives and destroyed them Now Penguin brings you the works of thereat thinkers pioneers radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization and helped make us who we are.