Poststructuralism A Very Short Introduction [E–pub/E–book]

Making Sense of Leadership: Exploring the Five Key Roles Used by Effective Leaders gWork of a really bad writercommunicator or a total Straussianenius inserting a meta commentary about post structuralism within a work on post structuralism It is after all the writing that writes If I am to believe Barthes that distinction is anyway null and void so perhaps best to ignore it altogether I do have a much nuanced understanding of poststructuralism as well as a new empathy for linguistic arguments like with LGBT pronouns I see that now as a logical reaction under a system of beliefs that raises the importance of language above ideas and consciousness Although it does make me wonder why we would create ungendered pronouns only for people identifying within LGBT If the foundational argument is that there are differences among menwomen than the commonalities that we force upon them through creation of Penny Aggie Volume 2 gendered terms and that those manlywomanly ualities are socially constructed then shouldn t cis hetero men also use ungendered pronouns that seems like an argument no conservative could reasonably vilifyI came at this after reading the VSI s by Peter Singer and thinking his clarity of concept context and evolution of thought process were probably the hallmark of this VSI series and promptly picked up some of the topics that Wikipedia just can t explain to me like this one postmodernism critical theory etc I was dismayed to find that Peter Singer s lucidity was the exception rather than the norm You d think understanding poststructuralism might need an understanding of structuralism first You d be wrong You d thinkiven its emphasis on social construction there would first be a look at the historical political and social environments that birthed it as a philosophy and movement You d be wrong This entire VSI is a Gandhi Churchill: The Epic Rivalry that Destroyed an Empire and Forged Our Age garbled mess that has the stench of simple ideas presented with complexity like the irritating disciples of Derrida that she mentions The ideas are complex sure but a little patience is enough to figure out individual passages What s exhausting though is finding any sort of unifying clarity of thought that links all the different passages applications to various social institutions and beliefs the main proponents This is asood as a collection of Wikipedia articles on each of the main personalities of this movement with no effort taken to understand this with the depth that it deserves that might make the reading than the sum of its parts If that wasn t bad enough the writing is drenched with the political leanings of the author straw manning of opposing points and some really annoyingly superficial You may argue picking the weakest possible arguments in order to defend the point Again maybe I misspeak when I say author maybe the writing itself drenches us with its fully intended political leanings But it is very jarring to read such a hopelessly propagandizing blinkered presentation of what should be a very enlightened philosophy of skepticism humility personal meaning creation and radicalization Where it isn t jarring it is insipid in a way that makes Yuval Harari look profound and nuanced Take this line In

So Far As The 
far as the matters at all and perhaps in the end it doesn t much my "Answer Would Be Yes And "would be yes and as only a bad example This would a much stronger read if one ignored all parentheses altogether where she wishy washes her own ideas down the drainBut let me tell how I really feelLewis Carroll worship is still alive and kicking Starting off Humpty s when I use a word it means just what I choose it to mean contrasting that personal meaning with words are unruly they have a temper suggesting a mind of their own and finding a mention later about how the entire dialogue is like a ame picking up from Wittgenstein s thoughtsWhat if language doesn t originate from consciousness instead a product of the meanings we learn No objective reality Ideas are not the cause but the effect of meanings we reproduceModern used as an adjective for new but modernity has become a thing of the past postmodern What will post postmodern be calledSaussure argued that if thingsconcepts that language described existed outside it then it would have exact euivalents in all languages But why would someone in the Sahara have a word for snow or for polar bears Doesn t this prove that there is an objective reality in the realm of forms that is being manifested incompletely in our realms Either way Saussure was instrumental Signifier is the wordsoundimage signified is the meaning it conveys In a foreign language signifiers exist in isolation since we can t understand the signified Language creates conceptualphonic differences that we comprehend as meaning it wasn t the other way around Barthes Mythologies Myth converts history into nature into a human condition Today myths than ever before in history UFOs flat earth whatever because bourgeoisie system has become one of silently transmitting representations of relations between humans and the worldAlthusser reread the works of Marx in the light of 20th century theoretical developments including linguistics and psychoanalysis In For Marx 1965 he put forward the theory that society could best be understood as working on three levels economic political and ideological Institutions like religion media sport literature and mostly education reinforce status uo making them seem obviousLevi Strauss structural anthropology looking for universal structures embedded as motivations that individuals are not aware of Like marriage customs dividing prohibited incest from permitted Founding principle of human culture is how to convert hostility into reciprocity Like Plato s forms Structuralism is seductive idea promising unifying narrative reducing differences to superficial error in representation as opposed to Saussure Saw writing as inscription of speech therefore inferior to natural speech and connected with exploitation violence Derrida criticized such reduction to eternalsuniversals Onal theories of language and culture While the author discusses such well known figures as Barthes Foucault Derrida and Lacan she also draws pertinent examples from literature art film and popular culture unfolding the poststructuralist account of what it means to be a human being About the Series Combining authority. Succinct and to the point without the use of extra difficult diction or over complicated explanationsa remarkable book in the series It is difficult to do a short introduction on poststructuralism but this very short introduction is better than some of the other subjects in the series I have read and much better than the odawful introduction to postmodernism Oxford inexplicably allowed One of the problems with this subject is it assumes you know something about a number of other subjects before you even read it like feminism psychoanalysis Marxism literary criticism etc etc but despite the fact that the author could have written detail this being one of the shorter entries in even this short series it still is a pretty ood introduction In five chapters the author presents us the multiple post structuralism theory From Saussure to Lyotard including Levi Strauss Althusser Foucault Barthes Derrida Lacan and Zizek Sex Art Politics Literature and Ethics are some of the depicted themes Lewis Carroll s dialogue between Alice and Humpty Dumpty and the case of Abel s ender changing confronts the idea of meaning as iven in advance After poststructuralism meanings are not iven but can be changed or deconstructed Post structuralism doesn t deprive us of the power to change Power is movable There are conflicts and we choose sides Derrida s last works are about Ethics in a world without foundation truths Saussure s concept of signifier is the basis of differance not difference uiding the idea of a world without foundation truths Although Reason and the laws of nature can be taken as new forms of metaphysical foundations Poststructuralism theory thinks there is no ultimate absolute reality If value emanate from language and Language divides the world differently from culture to culture Then no appeal to a rounding reality That is the uestion of XXI century values can change since values are different from themselves This idea comes from Saussure s signifiers as difference And lacanian Psychoanalysis is in debt with Saussure as difference is central desire is always unconscious the first object is always lost to the subject The mother is not a person but a structural position This maternal love object is lost in the Real From which the world of signifiers severs us Poststructuralism A Very Short Introduction Very Short Introductions 73 Catherine Belsey Poststructuralism changes the way we understand the relations between human beings their culture and the world Following a brief account of the historical relationship between structuralism and poststructuralism this Very Short Introduction traces the key arguments that have led poststructuralists to challenge traditional theories of language and culture While the author discusses such well known figures as Barthes Foucault Derrida and Lacan she also draws pertinent examples from literature art film and popular culture unfolding the poststructuralist account of what it means to be a human being Recent events have reinvigorated my interest in the sociocultural factors that impact our sense of well being The uality and character of our national discourse has abruptly changed and the psychological impact it has had on nearly everyone I encounter is profoundWhen the dominant cultural discourse is reflective of ones personal world view and when the national practices and policies are progressing in the direction of ones values and in the service of ones interests the feeling is of basic safety and optimism and the impulse is to a maintain the status uo andor b increase the rate of progress When the dominant discourse is hostile to ones world view and the national practices are in opposition to ones values and and interests the feeling is well pretty fuckin awful I don t know about y all but I have been feeling pretty critical lately for better or worse and I have been craving some critical theory to hopefully lend acuity to my experience of the shit storm of wounding words and ideas that have been flying around the data sphere as of lateI read a bunch of critical theory in college but that was a long time ago and I have been in a very different head space for a ood long time and I wanted a little refresher So what the F is poststructuralismPoststructuralism is an intellectual movement defined by its critical relationship to its predecessor structuralism hence the nameStructuralism was a primarily European philosophical and linguistics movement one of modernities many ism s based on the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand De Saussure who along with Charles Sanders Pierce pronounced purse founded the field of semiotics ie the study of signs and symbols and their useinterpretationSaussure is most known for his theory of The Sign which differentiates symbolic language into a signifier and b signifiedA Sign refers to anything with symbolic value eg a logo word lyph rude hand esture etc According to "Saussure signs only have meaning because we people collectively decide and agree that they have "signs only have meaning because we people collectively decide and agree that they have For example The word Prince is a sign that refers to among other things the American singer songwriter multi instrumentalist and record producer known for his flamboyant stage presence extravagant dress makeup and wide vocal range The Signifier refers to a sign s physical form such as a sound printed word or image as distinct from its meaning The signifier is in this example the actual word Prince the *Meaning Of Which Is Arbitrary *of which is arbitrary the word has no intrinsic meaning it s just a sound and it can mean what ever we want it to as long as we agreeThat particular example Prince was so arbitrary in fact that the dude switched signifiers in mid career from a word Prince to a freaky ender fucked suiggle and implored us to refer to him as the artist formerly known as Prince And it sort Devoid of coherent structure organization of ideas contextual understanding and conceptual connections this is either the. Poststructuralism changes the way we understand the relations between human beings their culture and the world Following a brief account of the historical relationship between structuralism and poststructuralism this Very Short Introduction traces the key arguments that have led poststructuralists to challenge traditi. ,

Lso criticized subordination of writing Phonocentrism iving speech a special place due "to presence immediacy innocence lost in writing He heroes writing which continues "presence immediacy innocence lost in writing He heroes writing which continues absence of writer threatening Logocentrism that thinks ideas came first then speech then writing A pure consciousness Derrida says thus Saussure contradicts himself Derrida hard to read because a European cultural references we don t et b tries to be very precise and c demonstrates in practice that language is not transparent clear pane of lass Foucault the libertine radical had a very strong section in this book Contrasting medieval public execution with modern mental institutions saying former were free criminals behaving courageously often became public heroes Space to rebel Learning entails submission There is no power without the possibility of resistance Crime itself is a refusal of the law eccentricity is a repudiation of norms vice is a rejection of conventional ethics Greeks never considered themselves defined by sexual habits so paedophiliahomosexuality would ve been far less important in their lives Foucault rejected Marxism as another discipline self habits so paedophiliahomosexuality would ve been far less important in their lives Foucault rejected Marxism as another discipline self truth recruiting subjects Similarly postmodernist Lyotard who was suspicious of rand narratives of History like Marx Funny then why there is such a link between neomarxism and postmodernism Lacan reinterprets Freud through Saussure We are born organisms then become subjects by inculcating our culturelanguage Organism becomes alienated forced to communicate using constrained language Something is lost here crops up in dreams Freudian slips In the ap desire is born Perpetual condition that is unconscious but finds expression in our projection onto temporary love objects Freud believed civilization was sublimation transforming raw sexual drives into socially approved artistic creation Lacan says everyone s drives is made to serve civilization like making things teaching writing etc Zizek believes in underlying antagonism in individual manifests in particular phobias like Islamic fundamentalism or communism Once destroyed we will find antagonism is not one So totalitarianism which suppresses it or liberal democracy that civilizes it are both the sameJean Francois Lyotard my favorite section of the book believes in dissension Commitment to consensus promotes bland centrism no challenge to status uo intellectual inventive lateral thinking Uses Wittgenstein to characterize dialogue as succession of manoevres That s why a certain pleasure in linguistic inventiveness like puns jokes Dislikes Hello, Snow! grand narratives like Marxist history Prefers heterogeneity multiplication of difference and pursuit of unknown through paralogy a form of reasoning that breaks rules or invents new ones Against realism the enemy of doubt Renaissance painters had strict 3D Geometry rules in painting Then Dutch realism Now photography tv delivering facts 20th century said truth was inaccessible became a modernism lamented impossibility of truth nostalgia of lost presence or b postmodernism celebrating capability to create new rules forms working without rules to discover what theoverning rules of their work will have been Ulysses Duchamp s Fountain Nazis endorsed classicism hated avant A Little Dinner Before the Play garde Stalin too Thought they had truth and wanted it to be transmitted Avantgarde poses uestions Undermines certainty Is the author talking about linguistics now Or politics Or metaphysics Oh wait it s popular culture No it s ethics Or is it psychoanalysis Art theory Anthropology Or just literary criticismNormally I love multi tasking authors and theories of everything but when Io through the above in just two pages I know there s a problem there And yet this is exactly what I feel when I read poststructuralism related authors No Most Of Them most of them t like to be called poststructuralist Sadly this very short introduction suffers the same problemBelsey manages to be clearer than the thinkers she presents in the book especially in Chapter 3 Difference and Desire Despite her and my best efforts however in the other chapters I felt sharply oscillating between Well this is pretty obvious and Well this doesn t make sense at all another feature that the book shares with the founding texts of poststructuralismIf a school of thought keeps its confused and obscure style even in the text of a very short introduction for lay people it seems only fair to conclude once again that either these authors don t have anything substantial to say or they have discovered an esoteric truth that they cannot communicate If we remember how much they despise such truths we re left with only one option For me this book did what it said on the tin I ve skirted around PS in its different forms for a while now when dabbling in semiotics and critical theory etc and really wanted to know a little about what it s all about without burdening myself with a loaded textbookIt s not an easy subject I don t believe anyone who says they find it easy It challenges on uite a fundamental level a lot of the structures and common ideas on society and language This book barely skims the surface But what it is is a menu See what takes your fancy and then you can pursue those lines of enuiry yourself to read furtherFor me I came away with a peeked interest in learning about Saussure Foucault he sounds like fun and Derrida he sounds far too clever for me It also reignited a little love affair I had with Freudian teachings a while agoIn summary it does contain difficult language and ideas because it s dealing with a subject that is built upon challenging language and ideas As short as it is I wouldn t necessary consider it an easy read But if I wanted that I d try a Dummies Mastering the Art of Saying No Without Feeling Guilty: Tips, Techniques and Strategies guide Useless shitty crap Excellent intro to poststructural thought complete with clear and vivid illustrations and witty explanations A veryood straightfoward place to start if you re interested in poststructuralism. With wit accessibility and style Very Short Introductions offer an introduction to some of life's most interesting topics Written by experts for the newcomer they demonstrate the finest contemporary thinking about the central problems and issues in hundreds of key topics from philosophy to Freud uantum theory to Isla. Poststructuralism A Very Short Introduction

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